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Body Plan
Transport within the Body
Open (a heart pumps hemolymph through short arteries into sinuses)
Open circulatory system where organs are bathed in hemolymph via hemocoel, which have special valves to return hemolymph to the heart
Gas Exchange
Method of Waste Disposal
Nervous System
Important Distinguishing Feature
  • Most have tracheal systems on internal surfaces are specialized for gas exchange
  • Book Lungs, or stacked plates in an internal chamber; the surface area enhances exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between hemolymph and air
  • Crustaceans: smaller ones have areas of the cuticle, while larger ones have gills
  • Insecta: muscle movements help internal circulation; respiration system consists of a network of cuticle-lined tubules which air circulates to various tissues of the body, supplying each cell directly
  • Malphigian Tubules remove metabolic wastes from the hemolymph
  • Crustaceans: excretory organs in the head, wastes are collected and excreted
  • Many sensory organs, including eyes, olfactory receptors, and antennae for touch and smell
  • Consists of a pair of ventral nerve cords with several segmental ganglia; the two cords meet in the head
  • Crustaceans: separate sexes, males have specialized appendages to transfer sperm
    Exoskeletons, segmentation, and jointed appendages